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BASI™ Series and Correlation to Leading Achievement and Intelligence Tests

Excerpted from the Manual for the BASI™ (Basic Achievement Skills Inventory) Comprehensive Test by Achilles N. Bardos, PhD

BASI Test and Iowa Achievement Test

This study examined the relationships between the BASI Form A tests at Levels 1, 2, and 3 and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills® (ITBS®) and between BASI Level 4 (Form A) and the Iowa Tests of Educational Development® (ITED®). The samples consisted of a total of 285 students attending grades 3 through 10 in the 2002–2003 school year. The BASI Level 4 sample consisted of 1 ninth grader and 100 tenth graders, of whom 44 (43.6%) were males and 57 (56.4%) were females, with 8 receiving special education services and 3 identified as gifted. Data on race/ethnicity and parental education were missing for too many of these students to allow meaningful breakdowns.

The BASI test was administered by school personnel as part of the standardization data collection process. The data for the Iowa tests were provided by the schools for the purpose of this study. All students took the two tests within a six-week period.

The means indicate that the students who took BASI Levels 1 through 3 scored above average on all BASI measures. Those who took BASI Level 4 received mostly below–average mean scores. The correlations between the BASI subtest and total scores and the Iowa subtest and total scores are shown for BASI Levels 1 through 4 in Tables 1–4. Statistically significant correlations were observed between subtests and total scores measuring similar constructs.

Table 1. Correlations Between BASI Level 1 (Form A) and the ITBS

BASI Test
ITBS
VO
SP
LM
RC
MC
MA
Read
Writ
Math

Vocabulary

.48**

.24

.29*

.45**

.22

.31*

.51**

.25*

.33**

Reading Comprehension

.49**

.26*

.49**

.57**

.34**

.48**

.60**

.37**

.49**

Total Reading

.51**

.26*

.43**

.55**

.31*

.43**

.59**

.33**

.45**

Spelling

.30*

.42**

.27*

.33**

.18

.14

.36**

.36**

.21

Capitalization

.28*

.21

.35**

.36**

.23

.26*

.35**

.27*

.30*

Punctuation

.31*

.25*

.34**

.37**

.28*

.34**

.38**

.29*

.38**

Usage and Expression

.47**

.39**

.39**

.46**

.28*

.37**

.52**

.40**

.40**

Total Language

.40**

.36**

.40**

.44**

.29*

.33**

.47**

.38**

.38**

Math Concepts

.36**

.22

.39**

.38**

.40**

.49**

.41**

.30*

.53**

Math Problem Solving

.38**

.20

.43**

.44**

.41**

.49**

.46**

.31*

.53**

Math Computation

.15

.25*

.21

.21

.34**

.25*

.20

.24

.35**

Total Math

.39**

.22

.43**

.43**

.43**

.51**

.46**

.32**

.56**

Note. N = 65. VO = Vocabulary, SP = Spelling, LM = Language Mechanics, RC = Reading Comprehension, MC = Math Computation, MA = Math Application, Read = Reading Total, Writ = Written Language Total, Math = Math Total, ITBS = Iowa Tests of Basic Skills.
* p < .05. ** p < .01.

Table 2. Correlations Between BASI Level 2 (Form A) and the ITBS

BASI Test
ITBS
VO
SP
LM
RC
MC
MA
Read
Writ
Math

Vocabulary

.59**

.45**

.40**

.52**

.33**

.43**

.65**

.46**

.46**

Reading Comprehension

.53**

.53**

.64**

.67**

.42**

.63**

.68**

.64**

.61**

Total Reading

.61**

.55**

.59**

.67**

.42**

.60**

.73**

.62**

.61**

Spelling

.21

.65**

.31*

.36**

.33**

.45**

.33**

.52**

.46**

Capitalization

.24

.47**

.49**

.37**

.44**

.43**

.35**

.52**

.50**

Punctuation

.32**

.49**

.52**

.47**

.46**

.52**

.45**

.55**

.58**

Usage and Expression

.31**

.59**

.44**

.51**

.35**

.55**

.47**

.55**

.54**

Total Language

.34**

.66**

.55**

.52**

.47**

.58**

.50**

.65**

.62**

Math Concepts

.39**

.47**

.41**

.49**

.56**

.61**

.51**

.47**

.68**

Math Problem Solving

.29*

.45**

.44**

.45**

.51**

.72**

.43**

.48**

.72**

Math Computation

.27*

.28*

.42**

.40**

.53**

.42**

.39**

.38**

.55**

Total Math

.36**

.49**

.46**

.50**

.56**

.72**

.49**

.51**

.75**

Note. N = 69. VO = Vocabulary, SP = Spelling, LM = Language Mechanics, RC = Reading Comprehension, MC = Math Computation, MA = Math Application, Read = Reading Total, Writ = Written Language Total, Math = Math Total, ITBS = Iowa Tests of Basic Skills.
* p < .05. ** p < .01.

Table 3. Correlations Between BASI Level 3 (Form A) and the ITBS

BASI Test
ITBS
VO
SP
LM
RC
MC
MA
Read
Writ
Math

Vocabulary

.75**

.60**

.71**

.66**

.49**

.56**

.80**

.76**

.60**

Reading Comprehension

.69**

.63**

.76**

.77**

.47**

.58**

.83**

.81**

.60**

Total Reading

.75**

.64**

.77**

.76**

.51**

.60**

.86**

.82**

.63**

Spelling

.48**

.91**

.51**

.55**

.56**

.40**

.60**

.83**

.53**

Capitalization

.27

.32*

.30*

.29*

.42**

.37**

.34*

.39**

.45**

Punctuation

.31*

.65**

.60**

.48**

.40**

.32*

.47**

.74**

.41**

Usage and Expression

.52**

.64**

.70**

.66**

.44**

.49**

.67**

.78**

.53**

Total Language

.49**

.82**

.66**

.63**

.54**

.45**

.64**

.87**

.56**

Math Concepts

.46**

.44**

.53**

.55**

.65**

.70**

.59**

.59**

.76**

Math Problem Solving

.52**

.40**

.62**

.61**

.64**

.67**

.64**

.60**

.74**

Math Computation

.30*

.48**

.48**

.43**

.59**

.42**

.43**

.58**

.57**

Total Math

.52**

.44**

.62**

.63**

.68**

.72**

.66**

.64**

.80**

Note. N = 50. VO = Vocabulary, SP = Spelling, LM = Language Mechanics, RC = Reading Comprehension, MC = Math Computation, MA = Math Application, Read = Reading Total, Writ = Written Language Total, Math = Math Total, ITBS = Iowa Tests of Basic Skills.
* p < .05. ** p < .01.

Table 4. Correlations Between BASI Level 4 (Form A) and the ITED

BASI Test
ITED
VO
SP
LM
RC
MC
MA
Read
Writ
Math

Reading Vocabulary

.80

.49

.57

.57

.44

.51

.76

.59

.54

Reading–Literary Materials

.69

.49

.59

.64

.34

.49

.73

.60

.47

Iowa Reading Total

.79

.53

.62

.65

.42

.54

.80

.64

.54

Expression Advanced Skills

.67

.51

.60

.70

.51

.56

.75

.62

.61

Expression Total

.70

.55

.62

.69

.54

.54

.77

.66

.61

Quantitative Thinking Advanced Skills

.60

.37

.51

.48

.59

.58

.59

.49

.66

Quantitative Thinking Advanced Skills Total

.60

.40

.53

.52

.66

.57

.63

.52

.70

Note. N = 101. VO = Vocabulary, SP = Spelling, LM = Language Mechanics, RC = Reading Comprehension, MC = Math Computation, MA = Math Application, Read = Reading Total, Writ = Written Language Total, Math = Math Total, ITED = Iowa Tests of Educational Development. All correlations are statistically significant at p < .01.

BASI Level 4 (Form A) and the TABE®

In this study, BASI Level 4 (Form A) was administered to 40 high school students in grades 9 (n = 14; 35%), 10 (n = 8; 20%), 11 (n = 10; 25%), and 12 (n = 8; 20%) in the 2002–2003 school year. Three students were identified as receiving special education services, and one was identified as gifted. There were 22 (55%) male and 18 (45%) female students. The group consisted of 17 (42.5%) whites, 1 (2.5%) African American, 3 (7.5%) American Indians, 3 (7.5%) “other,” and 16 (40.0%) Hispanics. The parents of these individuals reported their own educational background as follows: 2 (5.0%) less than 12th grade, 18 (45.0%) high school graduate or GED, 13 (32.5%) 1–3 years of college, 4 (10.0%) 4 or more years of college. Parental education was not reported for the remaining 3 (7.5%) students.

These students completed the TABE 7/8 Complete Battery and BASI Level 4 (Form A) within a period of six weeks. TABE scores were made available by the school district for the purpose of this study. The sample performed in the lower end of the average range across the majority of the BASI subtests, scoring lowest on Reading Comprehension and Math Computation.

Table 5 provides correlations between the BASI subtest and total scores and those for the TABE. Despite the somewhat restricted range of many of the BASI scores (as indicated by standard deviations less than 15), many statistically significant correlations of moderate magnitude were obtained between the two instruments.

Table 5. Correlations Between BASI Level 4 (Form A) and the TABE

BASI Test
TABE
VO
SP
LM
RC
MC
MA
Read
Writ
Math

Reading Comprehension

.52**

.38*

.69**

.49**

.26

.35*

.59**

.61**

.33*

Math Computation

.37*

.40*

.51**

.29

.41**

.46**

.41**

.50**

.51**

Math Application

.40*

.34*

.56**

.43**

.43**

.45**

.50**

.50**

.50**

Language

.37*

.51**

.72**

.55**

.42**

.39*

.56**

.68**

.47**

Spelling

.20

.49**

.53**

.43**

.17

.20

.40*

.56**

.23

Total Math

.41**

.40*

.57**

.38*

.45**

.49**

.48**

.53**

.54**

Total Battery

.47**

.48**

.73**

.52**

.42**

.45**

.60**

.67**

.50**

Note. N = 40. VO = Vocabulary, SP = Spelling, LM = Language Mechanics, RC = Reading Comprehension, MC = Math Computation, MA = Math Application, Read = Reading Total, Writ = Written Language Total, Math = Math Total, TABE = Tests of Adult Basic Education.
* p < .05. ** p < .01. 

BASI Level 4 (Form B) and the TABE

The relationship between Level 4 (Form B) of the BASI test and the TABE 7/8 Complete Battery was examined in a study with 161 high school students in grade 9 (n = 31; 19.3%), grade 10 (n = 43; 26.7%), grade 11 (n = 49; 30.4%), and grade 12 (n = 38; 23.6%) in the 2002–2003 school year. Thirty-three students were receiving special education services, and three were identified as gifted. There were 94 (58.4%) males and 67 (41.6%) females in the sample. The majority of the students were white (90 or 55.9%), and the remaining were as follows: 5 (3.1%) African American, 4 (2.5%) American Indian, 2 (1.2%) Asian American, 7 (4.3%) “other,” and 53 (32.9%) Hispanic/Latino. The parental education of these individuals was as follows: 16 (9.9%) less than 12th grade, 69 (42.9%) high school graduate or GED, 50 (31.1%) 1–3 years of college, and 26 (16.1%) 4 or more years of college.

As in the study described previously, these students completed the BASI and TABE tests within a period of six weeks, and the school district provided TABE scores for the purpose of this study. Overall, the sample earned BASI scores in the average range. Table 6 shows that statistically significant correlations were again obtained between the BASI and TABE subtest and total scores.

Table 6. Correlations Between BASI Level 4 (Form B) and the TABE

BASI Test
TABE
VO
SP
LM
RC
MC
MA
Read
Writ
Math

Reading Comprehension

.44**

.39**

.50**

.37**

.30**

.19*

.46**

.49**

.31**

Math Computation

.34**

.29**

.35**

.28**

.41**

.30**

.36**

.35**

.44**

Math Application

.39**

.34**

.41**

.32**

.39**

.24**

.41**

.42**

.40**

Language

.41**

.41**

.54**

.37**

.26**

.21**

.46**

.53**

.30**

Spelling

.25**

.57**

.36**

.30**

.15

.08

.33**

.54**

.14

Total Math

.40**

.34**

.42**

.32**

.43**

.29**

.42**

.42**

.45**

Total Battery

.47**

.42**

.55**

.40**

.36**

.25**

.50**

.54**

.39**

Note. N = 161. VO = Vocabulary, SP = Spelling, LM = Language Mechanics, RC = Reading Comprehension, MC = Math Computation, MA = Math Application, Read = Reading Total, Writ = Written Language Total, Math = Math Total, TABE = Tests of Adult Basic Education.
* p < .05. ** p < .01.

Wechsler, D. (2001). Wechsler Individual Achievement Test–II (WIAT-II). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment, Inc.

BASI and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test®–Second Edition (WIAT®-II)

One of the goals of the BASI Comprehensive test is to complement individually administered achievement tests in psychoeducational evaluations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between scores on the BASI test and the WIAT-II (Wechsler, 2001). The WIAT-II is a widely used individually administered comprehensive test that is often used to diagnose academic difficulties and assist with the determination of possible placement in special education.

The samples consisted of 41 students in grades 3 through 8 who completed BASI Form A and the WIAT-II and another 30 third through eighth graders who completed BASI Form B and the WIAT-II in the 2002–2003 school year. The WIAT-II was administered along with the BASI test by trained examiners in a counterbalanced order.

The means and standard deviations showed that the two samples performed comparably on the BASI test forms and the WIAT-II, with mean scores in the high-average to above-average range. Statistically significant correlations were obtained between the subtest scores and total scores of the two tests that measure similar achievement areas, as shown in Tables 7 and 8. These data support the use of the BASI test as a measure of academic achievement that yields results similar to those from the WIAT-II.

Table 7. Correlations Between BASI Form A and the WIAT-II

BASI Test

WIAT-II

VO
SP
LM
RC
MC
MA
Read
Writ
Math
Word Reading .57** .53** .46** .57** .28 .25 .69** .55** .29
Reading Comprehension .50** .38* .55** .56** .27 .40** .63** .48** .39*
Numerical Operations .15 .23 .39* .44** .40* .41** .37* .33* .47**
Math Reasoning .35* .28 .61** .49** .49** .52** .50** .47** .58**
Math Composite .29 .30 .58** .52** .52** .52** .49** .47** .60**
Spelling .46** .69** .53** .57** .26 .25 .61** .70** .28
Written Expression .42** .52** .53** .53** .38* .34* .52** .60** .39*
Written Language Composite .49** .69** .59** .61** .34* .32* .64** .73** .36*

Note. N = 41. VO = Vocabulary, SP = Spelling, LM = Language Mechanics, RC = Reading Comprehension, MC = Math Computation, MA = Math Application, Read = Reading Total, Writ = Written Language Total, Math = Math Total, WIAT-II = Wechsler Individual Achievement Test–Second Edition.
* p < .05. ** p < .01

Table 8. Correlations Between BASI Form B and the WIAT-II

BASI Test

WIAT-II

VO
SP
LM
RC
MC
MA
Read
Writ
Math
Word Reading .63** .44* .64** .54** .28 .42* .69** .61** .43*
Reading Comprehension .71** .34 .59** .45* .15 .71** .66** .50** .48**
Numerical Operations .09 .19 .29 .00 .43* .20 .07 .28 .45*
Math Reasoning .41* .26 .49** .20 .39* .44* .35 .42* .53**
Math Composite .30 .26 .47** .13 .49** .37* .26 .42* .57**
Spelling .52** .46** .48** .36* .11 .36 .51** .53** .26
Written Expression .48** .40* .50** .54** .10 .27 .55** .48** .20
Written Language Composite .54** .47** .53** .46* .11 .33 .55** .56** .25

Note. N = 30. VO = Vocabulary, SP = Spelling, LM = Language Mechanics, RC = Reading Comprehension, MC = Math Computation, MA = Math Application, Read = Reading Total, Writ = Written Language Total, Math = Math Total, WIAT-II = Wechsler Individual Achievement Test–Second Edition.
* p < .05. ** p < .01.

Woodcock, R.W., McGrew, K.S., & Maher, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery–III (WJ III). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.

BASI Form A and the Woodcock-Johnson® Psychoeducational Battery–III (WJ III®)


The WJ III (Woodcock, McGrew, & Maher, 2001) is another widely used individually administered achievement test that was studied in relation to the BASI test. Forty students in grades 3 through 8 completed BASI Form A and the WJ III battery in the 2002–2003 school year. The tests were administered by trained examiners in counterbalanced order.

The sample consisted of 6 (15%) third graders, 8 (20%) fourth graders, 6 (15%) fifth graders, 6 (15%) sixth graders, 8 (20%) seventh graders, and 6 (15%) eighth graders. There were 17 (42.5%) males and 23 (57.5%) females. Most of the students were white (34 or 85.0%), with 2 (5.0%) African Americans, 2 (5.0%) Asian Americans, 1 (2.5%) Hispanic, and 1 (2.5%) for whom race was not reported. The highest level of parental education was 1–3 years of college for 9 (22.5%) and 4 or more years of college for 30 (75.0%), with parental education not reported for 1 subject (2.5%).

Overall, the mean scores were quite similar across the two tests. Table 9 shows that there were many statistically significant correlations between BASI and WJ III scores. These results provide further evidence that the BASI test can be used to complement individually administered achievement tests.

Table 9. Correlations Between BASI Form A and the WJ III

BASI Test

WJ III

VO
SP
LM
RC
MC
MA
Read
Writ
Math

Letter-Word Identification

.47**

.50**

.41**

.36*

.41**

.52**

.48**

.50**

.56**

Reading Vocabulary

.44**

.43**

.31

.36*

.53**

.54**

.48**

.40*

.63**

Passage Comprehension

.47**

.53**

.42**

.53**

.46**

.64**

.57**

.52**

.66**

Reading Comprehension

.51**

.54**

.41**

.49**

.56**

.64**

.58**

.51**

.71**

Spelling

.40*

.66**

.40*

.32*

.60**

.44**

.43**

.58**

.59**

Punctuation & Capitals

.39*

.50**

.39*

.37*

.66**

.53**

.47**

.48**

.69**

Writing Samples

.18

.32*

.33*

.45**

.11

.29

.38*

.35*

.25

Editing

.47**

.71**

.31

.41**

.43**

.25

.51**

.57**

.37*

Basic Writing Skills

.51**

.77**

.43**

.41**

.63**

.42**

.54**

.66**

.60**

Calculation

.08

.10

–.02

–.03

.60**

.29

.04

.03

.53**

Quantitative Concepts

.32*

.25

.09

.14

.57**

.37*

.28

.17

.55**

Math Reasoning

.33*

.22

.03

.24

.52**

.44**

.33*

.11

.56**

Applied Problems

.25

.14

–.03

.30

.33*

.39*

.31

.04

.42**

Academic Skills

.40*

.55**

.34*

.27

.64**

.51**

.40*

.49**

.67**

Academic Applications

.45**

.44**

.28

.56**

.52**

.67**

.58**

.38*

.71**

Note. N = 40. VO = Vocabulary, SP = Spelling, LM = Language Mechanics, RC = Reading Comprehension, MC = Math Computation, MA = Math Application, Read = Reading Total, Writ = Written Language Total, Math = Math Total, WJ III = Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery–III.* p < .05. ** p < .01>