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Age Range: 18 years and older

Reading Level: 5th grade (Lexile average), 4.6 grade (Flesch-Kincaid)

Administration: Online, Computer, CD or Paper and pencil

Completion Time: 60-90 minutes

Forms: 567 True-False items

Norms: A nationally representative community sample of adult men and women (1,138 males and 1,462 females between the ages of 18 and 80 from several regions and diverse communities within the U.S.)

Scoring Options: Q-global Scoring and Reporting, Q Local Software, Mail-in Scoring Service, Hand Scoring

Report Option: Extended Score Reports, Adult Clinical Interpretive Reports, Forensic Settings Reports, Personnel Interp. and Adjustment Ratings Reports

Publication Date: 1989, 2001 (revised), updated 2003 and 2009

Publisher: University of Minnesota Press

 
 
 

Product Details

Relevant to a range of contemporary applications, the MMPI-2 instrument is the most widely used and widely researched test of adult psychopathology. Used by clinicians to assist with the diagnosis of mental disorders and the selection of appropriate treatment methods, the MMPI-2 test continues to help meet the assessment needs of mental health professionals in an ever-changing environment.

Link to the Specific MMPI-2 Reports & Materials Pages

Numerous Uses

The MMPI-2 test’s contemporary normative sample and extensive research base make it the assessment of choice for a wide variety of settings. The test can be used to help:

  • Assess major symptoms of social and personal maladjustment.
  • Identify suitable candidates for high-risk public safety positions.
  • Give a strong empirical foundation for a clinician's expert testimony.
  • Assess medical patients and design effective treatment strategies, including chronic pain management.
  • Evaluate participants in substance abuse programs and select appropriate treatment approaches.
  • Support college and career counseling recommendations.
  • Provide valuable insight for marriage and family counseling.

Key Features

  • Descriptive and diagnostic information relevant to today’s clients.
    Tailored reports present interpretive information for specific settings to help meet a wide range of needs.
  • Nationally representative normative sample.
    A community sample of adult men and women consists of 1,138 males and 1,462 females between the ages of 18 and 80 from several regions and diverse communities within the U.S.
  • Flexible administration and scoring.
    The test can be administered in several formats: computer, CD, or paper-and-pencil. To help meet the needs of more individuals, the MMPI-2 test can be administered in English, Spanish, Hmong, and French for Canada.

Scales

Validity Indicators

? - Cannot Say (reported as a raw score only, not plotted)
VRIN - Variable Response Inconsistency
TRIN - True Response Inconsistency
F - Infrequency
FB - Back F
FP - Infrequency–Psychopathology
FBS - Symptom Validity Scale (Extended Score Report)
L - Lie
K - Correction
S - Superlative Self-Presentation
Superlative Self-Presentation Subscales
S1 - Beliefs in Human Goodness
S2 - Serenity
S3 - Contentment with Life
S4 - Patience/Denial of Irritability
S5 - Denial of Moral Flaws

Clinical Scales
1 Hs - Hypochondriasis
2 D - Depression
3 Hy - Hysteria
4 Pd - Psychopathic Deviate
5 Mf - Masculinity–Femininity
6 Pa - Paranoia
7 Pt - Psychasthenia
8 Sc - Schizophrenia
9 Ma - Hypomania
0 Si - Social Introversion

Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales
(Extended Score Report)
RCd - dem - Demoralization
RC1 - som - Somatic Complaints
RC2 - lpe - Low Positive Emotions
RC3 - cyn - Cynicism
RC4 - asb - Antisocial Behavior
RC6 - per - Ideas of Persecution
RC7 - dne - Dysfunctional Negative Emotions
RC8 - abx - Aberrant Experiences
RC9 - hpm - Hypomanic Activation

Clinical Subscales
(Extended Score Report and The Minnesota Reports)
Harris-Lingoes Subscales
D1 - Subjective Depression
D2 - Psychomotor Retardation
D3 - Physical Malfunctioning
D4 - Mental Dullness
D5 - Brooding
Hy1 - Denial of Social Anxiety
Hy2 - Need for Affection
Hy3 - Lassitude-Malaise
Hy4 - Somatic Complaints
Hy5 - Inhibition of Aggression
Pd1 - Familial Discord
Pd2 - Authority Problems
Pd3 - Social Imperturbability
Pd4 - Social Alienation
Pd5 - Self-Alienation
Pa1 - Persecutory Ideas
Pa2 - Poignancy
Pa3 - Naiveté
Sc1 - Social Alienation
Sc2 - Emotional Alienation
Sc3 - Lack of Ego Mastery, Cognitive
Sc4 - Lack of Ego Mastery, Conative
Sc5 - Lack of Ego Mastery, Defective Inhibition
Sc6 - Bizarre Sensory Experiences
Ma1 - Amorality
Ma2 - Psychomotor Acceleration
Ma3 - Imperturbability
Ma4 - Ego Inflation
Social Introversion Subscales
Si1 - Shyness/Self-Consciousness
Si2 - Social Avoidance
Si3 - Alienation – Self and Others

Content Scales
(Extended Score Report, The Minnesota Reports)
ANX - Anxiety
FRS - Fears
OBS - Obsessiveness
DEP - Depression
HEA - Health Concerns
BIZ - Bizarre Mentation
ANG - Anger
CYN - Cynicism
ASP - Antisocial Practices
TPA - Type A
LSE - Low Self-Esteem
SOD - Social Discomfort
FAM - Family Problems
WRK - Work Interference
TRT - Negative Treatment Indicators

Content Component Scales
(Extended Score Report and The Minnesota Reports)
Fears Subscales
FRS1 - Generalized Fearfulness
FRS2 - Multiple Fears
Depression Subscales
DEP1 - Lack of Drive
DEP2 - Dysphoria
DEP3 - Self-Depreciation
DEP4 - Suicidal Ideation
Health Concerns Subscales
HEA1 - Gastrointestinal Symptoms
HEA2 - Neurological Symptoms
HEA3 - General Health Concerns
Bizarre Mentation Subscales
BIZ1 - Psychotic Symptomatology
BIZ2 - Schizotypal Characteristics
Anger Subscales
ANG1 - Explosive Behavior
ANG2 - Irritability
Cynicism Subscales
CYN1 - Misanthropic Beliefs
CYN2 - Interpersonal Suspiciousness
Antisocial Practices Subscales
ASP1 - Antisocial Attitudes
ASP2 - Antisocial Behavior
Type A Subscales
TPA1 - Impatience
TPA2 - Competitive Drive
Low Self-Esteem Subscales
LSE1 - Self-Doubt
LSE2 - Submissiveness
Social Discomfort
SOD1 - Introversion
SOD2 - Shyness
Family Problems
FAM1 - Family Discord
FAM2 - Familial Alienation
Negative Treatment Indicators
TRT1 - Low Motivation
TRT2 - Inability to Disclose

Supplementary Scales
(Extended Score Report, The Minnesota Reports)
Personality Psychopathology Five Scales (PSY-5)
AGGR - Aggressiveness
PSYC - Psychoticism
DISC - Disconstraint
NEGE - Negative Emotionality/Neuroticism
INTR - Introversion/Low Positive Emotionality
Broad Personality Characteristics
A - Anxiety
R - Repression
Es - Ego Strength
Do - Dominance
Re - Social Responsibility
Generalized Emotional Distress
Mt - College Maladjustment
PK - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder–Keane
MDS - Marital Distress
Behavioral Dyscontrol
Ho - Hostility
O-H - Overcontrolled Hostility
MAC-R - MacAndrew–Revised
AAS - Addiction Admission
APS - Addiction Potential
Gender Role
GM - Gender Role – Masculine
GF - Gender Role – Feminine

Special Indices and Scores
Welsh Code
F–K Dissimulation Index
Percent True and Percent False
Average Profile Elevation
P-A-I-N Classification (only with Adult Clinical Interpretive Report)
Gass Head Injury Items (Forensic Report only if applicable)

Psychometric Information

The MMPI-2 normative samples consist of 1,138 males and1,462 females from diverse geographic regions and communities across the United States. Individuals between the ages of 18 and 80 were recruited for inclusion in the samples. The revised MMPI-2 Manual for Administration, Scoring and Interpretation describes the distributions of age, geographic location, ethnic origin, educational attainment, marital status, occupation, and income level in the male and female samples.

MMPI-2 Non-Gendered Norms

Non-gendered T scores appear in the Revised Personnel System, 3rd Edition Reports, the Reports for Forensic Settings, and the Extended Score Report. It is possible to suppress the non-gendered T scores in printing these reports. A test monograph covering the development and use of the non-gendered norms is available from Pearson.

MMPI-2 Non-K-Corrected Norms

A profile of non-K-corrected T scores is available only in the Extended Score Report. It is provided in addition to the standard K-corrected Validity and Clinical Scales Profile. It is possible to suppress the non-K-corrected T scores when printing the Extended Score Report. Click here to link to a selected bibliography on MMPI-2 non-K-corrected T scores.

Scoring

Report Options

Extended Score Report

This report presents the following MMPI-2 scales:

  • Validity and Clinical Scales — profiled
  • Non-K-corrected Validity and Clinical Scales — profiled (optional)
  • Clinical Subscales (Harris-Lingoes and Social Introversion subscales) — scale scores reported only
  • Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales — profiled
  • Content Scales — profiled
  • Content Component Scales — scale scores reported only
  • Supplementary Scales (includes the PSY-5 Scales) — profiled

Critical items and omitted items are also provided.

Note. The Basic Service Report was discontinued in 2010.

The Minnesota Report: Adult Clinical System, 4th Edition Interpretive Report

Provides a comprehensive psychological picture of a client. This report presents the following MMPI-2 scales:

  • Validity and Clinical Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Content Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Supplementary Scales profiled with alcohol/drug scales interpreted
  • PSY-5 Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Superlative Self-Presentation Scale reported only
  • Clinical Subscales (Harris-Lingoes and Social Introversion Subscales) reported only
  • Content Component Scales reported only

Lists of critical items and omitted items are also provided.

In addition, the report provides an objective narrative assessment of your client's responses and compares the profile data to data from setting-specific research samples. The settings that are considered in the interpretation are:

  • Outpatient Mental Health
  • Inpatient Mental Health
  • General Medical
  • Chronic Pain
  • Correctional
  • College Counseling
  • Alcohol & Drug Treatment

The narrative report contains the following sections: Profile Validity, Symptomatic Patterns, Profile Frequency, Profile Stability, Interpersonal Relations, Diagnostic Considerations, and Treatment Considerations.

The Minnesota Report: Revised Personnel System, 3rd Edition Interpretive Report

This report presents the following MMPI-2 scales:
  • Validity and Clinical Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Content Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Supplementary Scales profiled with alcohol/drug scales interpreted
  • PSY-5 Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Superlative Self-Presentation Scale reported only
  • Clinical Subscales (Harris-Lingoes and Social Introversion Subscales) reported only
  • Content Component Scales reported only

In addition, the report compares the profile data to data from occupation-specific research samples and provides occupation-specific mean profiles. The occupations that are considered in the interpretation are:

  • Nuclear Power Facility
  • Law Enforcement
  • Airline Pilots
  • Medical and Psychology Students
  • Firefighters/Paramedics
  • Seminary Students
  • Other

Note: Air Traffic Controller was discontinued in 2001.

The narrative report contains the following sections: Profile Validity, Personal Adjustment, Interpersonal Relations, Profile Frequency, Contemporary Personnel Base Rate Information, Profile Stability, Possible Employment Problems, Content Themes, and Work Dysfunction Items.

The Minnesota Report: Revised Personnel System, 3rd Edition Adjustment Rating Report

This report presents the following MMPI-2 scales:
  • Validity and Clinical Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Content Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Supplementary Scales profiled with alcohol/drug scales interpreted
  • PSY-5 Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Superlative Self-Presentation Scale reported only
  • Clinical Subscales (Harris-Lingoes and Social Introversion Subscales) reported only
  • Content Component Scales reported only

In addition, the report rates the applicant on five important work-related dimensions: Openness to Evaluation, Social Facility, Addiction Potential, Stress Tolerance, and Overall Adjustment. Content themes and specific Work Dysfunction items are also reported.

The Minnesota Report: Reports for Forensic Settings

Each report in this series presents the following MMPI-2 scales:
  • Validity and Clinical Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Content Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Supplementary Scales profiled with alcohol/drug scales interpreted
  • PSY-5 Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Superlative Self-Presentation Scale reported only
  • Clinical Subscales (Harris-Lingoes and Social Introversion Subscales) reported only
  • Content Component Scales reported only

Lists of omitted items and Gass Head Injury items (Personal Injury Neurological setting only) are also provided.

In addition, this report series is customized for six forensic settings. Each of the reports provides an objective narrative assessment of your client's responses and compares the profile data to data from setting-specific research samples. The settings are:

  • Child Custody
  • Personal Injury
  • Personal Injury (Neurological)
  • Pre-trial Criminal
  • General Corrections
  • Competency/Commitment

The narrative includes the following sections: Profile Validity, Symptomatic Patterns, Profile Frequency, Profile Stability, Interpersonal Relations, Mental Health Considerations, and Setting-Specific Considerations.

Scoring and/or Reporting Options

Q-global™ Web-based Administration, Scoring, and Reporting – Enables you to quickly assess and efficiently organize examinee information, generate scores, and produce accurate comprehensive reports all via the Web.

Q Local™ Scoring and Reporting Desktop Software - Enables you to score assessments, report results, and store and export data on your computer.

Mail-in Scoring Service - Specially designed answer sheets are mailed to Pearson for processing within 24–48 hours of receipt; results returned via regular mail.

Hand Scoring – Administer assessments on answer sheets and score them yourself with answer keys and profile/record forms.

Resources

FAQs

Questions

Frequently asked questions follow. Click on a question to see the response.

Invalid Reports and Demographic Defaults

  • What are the demographic default values (initial settings) for an MMPI-2 administration?

    Demographic Default Value
    Years of Education 12
    Marital Status Single, Never Married (Adult Clinical System Report)
    Clinical Setting Outpatient Mental Health (Adult Clinical System Report)
    Occupation Other (Personnel System Reports)
    Addiction Potential Standard Level Addiction Potential (Personnel System Reports)

    Note: The Forensic Setting does not have a default value. If Forensic Setting is not indicated, an invalid report will be generated.

    Test Date, Birth Date, ID Number, and Gender must be filled in. The software will not print any report without this information. Age is calculated from the Test Date and Birth Date. If the client is younger than 18, no report will be printed.

     

  • My Extended Score Report is invalid, but it doesn't say that on the report. Why not?

    The Extended Score Report provides profiles and scores for the MMPI-2 scales, but does not provide an interpretation. Traditional invalidity rules are not applicable to the Extended Score Report. This enables clinicians to receive all of the scale scores. When using this report, interpretation is the responsibility of the clinician. The clinician is responsible for addressing profile invalidity in his or her interpretation. 

  • How does the Minnesota Report deal with invalid records?

    The Minnesota Reports are designed to interpret only protocols that meet well-established validity criteria. Invalid protocols are dealt with in two ways: Extremely elevated and clearly invalid records are not interpreted but the record is provided along with graphs that are clearly marked INVALID. Protocols that are possibly invalid (e.g., overly defensive or exaggerated) are discussed in a section in the report called VALIDITY CONSIDERATIONS. The utility of the particular evaluation is described and estimated contingent upon the level of performance on all the validity scales. The cut-offs for different settings will vary depending upon the research available.

Norms

  • Are different norms used for the different settings?

    No. There are different norms for the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A tests. The normative sample of the MMPI-2 instrument consists of 2,600 individuals, age 18 or older, who were selected as a representative sample of the US population.

    The three Minnesota Reports for adults (Adult Clinical System, Forensic, and Personnel System) use the same normative sample. However, in some settings data on specific personnel applications are also provided. In all settings, specific frequency data aid in the interpretation of the report by providing an empirical perspective with which to compare profiles.

    The MMPI-A norms that are used for adolescents were obtained on a national sample of adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. There were 805 boys and 815 girls from 8 regions of the United States.

  • Are there norms for different cultures for the MMPI-2 test?

    American minorities are included in the normative sample. There are no separate cultural norms.

New Scales and Developments

  • What are the PSY-5 scales and where can I find information about them?

    Harkness and McNulty developed a model for assessing psychopathology based on the "Big Five" model of personality. They selected items from the MMPI-2 item pool that matched their model and developed five scales: Aggressiveness (AGGR), Psychoticism (PSYC), Disconstraint (DISC), Negative Emotionality/Neuroticism (NEGE), and Introversion/Low Positive Emotionality (INTR). The Personality Psychopathology Five Scales (PSY-5) were introduced in 2001 and are available on the Extended Score Report, the Minnesota Reports, and in the hand-scoring Supplementary Scales materials. Additional information about the PSY-5 Scales can be found in the revised MMPI-2 Manual for Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation (2001) or the PSY-5 Test Report (University of Minnesota Press and Pearson).

  • Why were the validity scales re-ordered?

    The validity scales were re-ordered and plotted together on reports to enable test users to refine their evaluation of profile interpretability. The revised ordering of the validity scales reflects the recommended sequence for developing an interpretation of the scales: measures of inconsistent responding (VRIN, TRIN), measures of infrequent responding (F, FB, FP), and measures of defensive responding (L, K, S).

  • Why were the supplementary scales revised and re-ordered?

    The Supplementary Scales Profile was revised by the addition of the MMPI-2 version of the Cook/Medley Hostility scale (Ho) and the deletion of the Schlenger Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder scale (PS) and the Social Introversion Subscales (Si). The PS scale is no longer offered. The Si Subscales are available with the Harris-Lingoes Subscales but are not profiled. The Supplementary Scales were re-ordered to enhance interpretability: A, R, Es, Do, Re (scales representing or related to familiar normal-range personality constructs); Mt, PK, MDS (indicators of generalized emotional distress with a clinical emphasis); Ho, O-H, MAC-R, AAS, APS (indicators of behavioral dyscontrol, the last three focusing on substance abuse); and GM, GF (gender-role scales).

  • Which MMPI-2 reports contain non-gendered norms?

    Non-gendered T scores appear in the Revised Personnel System, 3rd Edition Reports, the Reports for Forensic Settings, and the Extended Score Report. It is possible to suppress the non-gendered T scores in printing these reports. A test monograph covering the development and use of the non-gendered norms is available from the University of Minnesota Press and Pearson.

  • Are non-gendered norms available for all MMPI-2 scales?

    Yes.

  • Are the non-gendered T scores K-corrected?

    In the Extended Score Report, both K-corrected and non-K-corrected non-gendered T scores may be printed. Users may suppress printing of the non-gendered and non-K-corrected T scores if they choose.

  • Why were the non-gendered T scores revised?

    A complete set of non-gendered T scores for all MMPI-2 scales is provided in a test monograph by Yossef S. Ben-Porath and Johnathan D. Forbey titled "Non-Gendered Norms for the MMPI-2," published by the University of Minnesota Press (2003). The monograph documents the rationale for, as well as the development and use of, non-gendered norms for the MMPI-2. Provisional non-gendered norms for a subset of the MMPI-2 scales were included in earlier versions of the Minnesota Reports. The non-gendered T scores reported in all current MMPI-2 products and in the monograph by Ben-Porath and Forbey (2003) differ minimally from the provisional non-gendered T scores because of slight changes in the composition of the non-gendered normative sample.

  • Where can I find more information on the non-gendered norms?

    The rationale, development, and use of non-gendered norms for the MMPI-2 test are documented in a test monograph authored by Yossef S. Ben-Porath and Johnathan D. Forbey and published by the University of Minnesota Press (2003). This document also contains tables for converting raw scores to non-gendered T scores for all MMPI-2 scales. This test monograph is available from Pearson (product # 29453).

  • Which MMPI-2 reports contain non-K-corrected T Scores?

    An optional profile of the Validity and Clinical Scales incorporating non-K-corrected T scores appears in the Extended Score Report. This profile may be printed in addition to the standard Validity and Clinical Scales Profile. Although non-K-corrected T scores are available in the Extended Score Report only, Appendix A of the revised MMPI-2 Manual for Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation (product # 24027) provides both K- and non-K-corrected T scores, and a hand-scoring Validity and Clinical Scales Profile form for K- and non-K-corrected norms is available (product # 24006). Click here to link to a selected bibliography on MMPI-2 Non-K-Corrected T Scores.

  • If I don't want to use the non-gendered T scores, can they be suppressed?

    Yes. The ability to suppress the non-gendered T scores is a print report option for the Personnel Interpretive, Personnel Adjustment Rating, Reports for Forensic Settings, and Extended Score reports.

  • If I don't want to use the non-K-corrected T scores, can they be suppressed?

    Yes, the ability to suppress the non-K-corrected T scores is a print report option for the Extended Score Report. Click here to link to a selected bibliography on MMPI-2 Non-K-Corrected T Scores.

  • Why were non-K-corrected T scores re-introduced in the Extended Score Report?

    Recently published research indicates that the K correction does not enhance validity and that in some cases validity is actually attenuated by the K correction. Non-K-corrected T scores allow interpreters to examine the relative contributions of the clinical scale raw score and the K correction to K-corrected clinical scale T scores. This information may be particularly helpful when the K score deviates substantially from the average T-score range (<40 or >65). Because all other MMPI-2 scores that aid in the interpretation of the Clinical Scales (the Harris-Lingoes Subscales, Restructured Clinical Scales, Content and Content Component Scales, PSY-5 Scales, and Supplementary Scales) are not K-corrected, they can be compared most directly with non-K-corrected T scores. Click here to link to a selected bibliography on MMPI-2 Non-K-Corrected T Scores.

    Important information about The Minnesota Report™: Adult Clinical System—Revised, 4th Edition (product code 51487).
    Arguably the gold standard interpretive report series for the MMPI-2 test, The Minnesota Report has proven to be an effective, efficient diagnostic and treatment planning tool for 20 years. Developed and updated on Q Local™ software, version 1.2 by noted MMPI-2 expert, James N. Butcher, PhD, the 4th edition of this premier MMPI-2 interpretive report series introduces the following:

    • Expanded narrative sections incorporating current research
    • Updated User's Guide to help you put the reports to work
    • Newly added Alcohol and Drug Treatment setting

Scales Not Offered and Discontinuations

  • Why were the Wiener-Harmon Subtle-Obvious Subscales removed from the Extended Score Report?

    The University of Minnesota Press and Pearson discontinued offering the Wiener-Harmon Subtle-Obvious Subscales in all MMPI® products. The subscales were retained in the MMPI-2 instrument to encourage further research in the hope that additional data would answer questions about their utility. It is the opinion of the Press's consultants that data collected subsequent to the publication of the MMPI-2 instrument in 1989 and reported in journal articles, as well as earlier studies, indicate that these subscales should no longer be offered. A majority of surveyed MMPI-2 clinician-researchers expressed the same opinion.

    The decision reflects the lack of empirical evidence supporting the validity of the subtle-obvious distinction as implemented in the Subtle-Obvious Subscales. There is no good evidence that the Subtle Subscales indicate psychopathology more validly than the Obvious Subscales when respondents fake bad or good or over- or underreport their psychological difficulties.

    Lack of supporting evidence and concern about the potential misuse of the Subtle-Obvious Subscales in clinical, forensic, and other applied settings have become compelling reasons for removing these subscales from the list of standard MMPI offerings.

  • Why is the Schlenger PTSD scale (PS) no longer available on the MMPI-2 test?

    Although both scales were normed on veterans, the Keane scale (PK) was developed to differentiate PTSD patients from other psychiatric patients. The Schlenger scale (PS) was developed to separate normals from PTSD patients. Research conducted to date shows that the Keane scale (PK) is a stronger, more useful measure for classifying patients with PTSD.

  • Why was the occupation “Air Traffic Controller” discontinued in the Personnel Reports?

    Air Traffic Controller was discontinued because the sample size was considered too small for base rate calculation. You may still process prior reports which indicate this occupation; however, the occupation will default to “other.”

  • Important information regarding the discontinuation of The Minnesota Report: Alcohol and Drug Treatment System (product code 51443).

    The Minnesota Report: Alcohol and Drug Treatment System has been revised and incorporated into the recently updated Adult Clinical System—Revised, 4th Edition. Look for this newly added setting (setting 8) in The Minnesota Report: Adult Clinical System—Revised, 4th Edition. With the introduction of this setting in the Adult Clinical System—Revised, 4th Edition, we have discontinued the prior version of The Minnesota Report: Alcohol and Drug Treatment System. Listed below is some important discontinuation information for the users of The Minnesota Report: Alcohol and Drug Treatment System.

  • With the discontinuation of the Alcohol/Drug Treatment System, what happens to my unused reports?

    When Q Local software, version 1.2 is opened, any unused reports for the Alcohol and Drug Treatment System (product code 51443) will be converted to reports for the Adult Clinical System–Revised, 4th Edition (product code 51487).

  • With the discontinuation of the Alcohol and Drug Treatment System, how do I reprint these reports?

    To reprint an Alcohol and Drug Treatment System report, highlight the assessment record and go into Edit. Enter 8 (Alcohol/Drug Treatment) for the clinical setting in the Edit Assessment Record window, then click Save Changes. With the assessment record still highlighted, go into Score and Report. Choose the Adult Clinical System–Revised, 4th Edition report in the Score and Report window, then click Continue. A report usage will not be required or subtracted to reprint this report.

Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation Help and Other Information

  • What is the Minnesota Report?

    The Minnesota Report is a computer-based interpretation system for the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A instruments for psychologists. The Minnesota Report is essentially an "electronic textbook" or resource guide that provides the most likely test interpretations for a particular set of MMPI-2 or MMPI-A scores in a particular setting.

  • Why are there different settings for the Minnesota Report? Do the reports differ for the various settings? What information is used to develop different personality interpretations?

    There are setting-specific versions of the Minnesota Report for several reasons:

    1. The nature and goals of a psychological evaluation differ according to the reason for referral. For example, in clinical settings clinical diagnosis and treatment potential are important considerations while these are not goals in personnel or forensic settings.

    2. The client is likely to approach the assessment task very differently in each of these settings. Thus, the assessment of protocol validity differs according to setting.

    3. The typical performance on the scales and indices of the MMPI-2/MMPI-A instruments differs somewhat by type of application. Therefore, the base rates of scores vary according to setting. More specifically, interpretations can be made for MMPI scores if the frequency of typical performance is included in the analysis. For example, in correctional facilities there is a high rate of Pd scale elevations and in medical settings Hs and Hy are more prominent.

    4. The reports will vary in terms of information provided, relative performance on the different indices, and research information available for each setting. In addition, different scale-behavioral correlates can be found in different settings. For example, the association between the Pd and Sc scales and aggressive acting-out behavior are more prominent in correctional settings than in medical settings.
  • Can the Minnesota Report computer printout serve as a complete and independent psychological report on a client?

    No, as noted on each report, the statements contained in the narrative represent a professional-to-professional consultation and do not serve as an independent or "stand-alone" report. The statements represent a "best estimate" or the most likely write-up for a given profile pattern. The information provided in the Report is analogous to an "electronic textbook."

    The narrative report is based on objectively derived scale indices and scale interpretations that have been developed in diverse groups of patients. The computer simply references the extensive research literature on the MMPI-2 scores and indexes, evaluates the particular pattern of scores that a client produces, and locates in the database the most pertinent personality and symptomatic information from the research literature. This MMPI-2 interpretation can serve as a useful source of hypotheses about clients.

  • Where can I find further information about the Minnesota Report?

    The User's Guides for the Minnesota Report are available from Pearson.

    Butcher, J. N. (2005). MMPI-2 User's guide. The Minnesota Report: Adult clinical System—Revised, 4th Edition. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments.

    Butcher, J. N. (2002). MMPI-2 User's guide. The Minnesota Report: Personnel System—Revised, 3rd Edition. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments.

    Butcher, et al. (1997). MMPI-2 User's guide. The Minnesota Report: Reports for Forensic Settings. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments.

    Butcher, J. N., & Williams, C. L. (2007). MMPI-A User's guide for The Minnesota Report: Adolescent Interpretive System, Second Edition. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments.

  • What is the difference between the Depression scale in the Clinical Scales and the Depression scale in the Content Scales?

    The Depression scale in the Clinical Scales is a heterogeneous measure of depression (it measures more than one facet of depression). This scale was developed on psychiatric patients with various forms of symptomatic depression. The Depression scale in the Clinical Scales measures discomfort and dissatisfaction with life, characterized by poor morale, lack of hope in the future, denial of happiness and self-worth, withdrawal, psychomotor retardation, and other facets of symptomatic depression.

    The Depression scale in the Content Scales measures only one facet of depression, self-reported depressive thoughts.

  • What is the difference between the MAC-R scale and the Addiction Potential Scale?

    The MAC-R scale has 49 items. The newer Addiction Potential Scale has 39 items. Many of the items on the two scales are different. MacAndrew developed the MAC-R scale by comparing men in treatment for alcoholism with male psychiatric patients whose primary problem was not alcoholism. However, the MAC-R does not contain content obviously related to alcohol use. High scores are associated with, among other things, social extraverted, risk taking, and aggressive tendencies. The Addiction Potential Scale items concern personality characteristics and life situations more generally associated with substance abuse. Its heterogeneous item content suggests extraverted and risk-taking characteristics as well as self-doubt and cynical attitudes. The Addiction Potential Scale is commonly used in conjunction with the Addiction Admission Scale.

  • Where can I find information about the content validity, construct validity, and criterion validity of the MMPI-2 instrument?

    Several of the MMPI-2 reference books have this information including John Graham's MMPI-2: Assessing Personality and Psychopathology (Oxford Press) and James Butcher and Carolyn Williams’s Essentials of MMPI-2 and MMPI-A Interpretation (University of Minnesota Press). Both of these books are available from Pearson.

  • Are there tables in the MMPI-2 manual with conversion data for item order from MMPI items to MMPI-2 items?

    Yes, in Appendix H of the revised MMPI-2 Manual for Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation (2001).

  • Does the MMPI-2 instrument measure PTSD?

    Yes, the MMPI-2 instrument has a PTSD measure, the PK scale (normed on veterans).

  • What are the differences between the MMPI-2 manual and the user's guides?

    The manual contains basic information about administering, scoring, and interpreting the test and should be purchased with every first-time MMPI-2 order. The user's guides document the development of a given interpretive report and describe its contents. A report user’s guide should be purchased with each first-time order of an MMPI-2 interpretive report.

  • Can adolescents take the MMPI-2 assessment and produce valid results?

    We recommend using the MMPI-A assessment with adolescents. A cautionary statement will be generated for MMPI-2 test takers under 19 because no adolescents were included in the normative sample.

  • Is the MMPI-2 instrument able to discriminate between neuropsychological disorders and conversion disorders/somatization disorders?

    We will not be able to give a definitive answer until research has been done in this area.

  • Are all MMPI-2 scales copyrighted?

    Yes.

  • Is the MMPI-2 instrument appropriate for use with chronic pain patients?

    Yes, see the Keller and Butcher book, Assessment of Chronic Pain Patients With the MMPI-2 (University of Minnesota Press). This book is available from Pearson.

  • What does the chronic pain classification 1,2,3,4,0 mean?

    1=Type P, 2=Type A, 3=Type I, 4=Type N, Type 0=does not fit any typology. See Costello, R. M., Hulsey, T. L., Schoenfeld, L. S., & Ramamurthy, S. (1987). P-A-I-N: A four-cluster MMPI typology for chronic pain. Pain, 30, 199–209.

    • Type P: This appears to be the most pathological of the four types. Most of the scales will be significantly elevated. Type P patients are usually the least educated and most often unemployed. They have the lowest monthly income compared to the other types. Type P patients make extreme claims about physical, psychological, and social distress.
    • Type A: This type is uniquely characterized by a "conversion V" on the Hs, D, and Hy scales. Type A does not have any significant demographic correlates.
    • Type I: This type has significant elevations only on scales Hs, D, and Hy. Type I patients seem to have chronic medical histories (i.e., multiple surgeries or hospitalizations). Type I patients may not improve physically with treatment, but they appear to experience some degree of psychological benefit.
    • Type N: This type has normal-range profiles. The only exception may be an elevated K. Type N patients tend to be more moderate in their health claims. Also, Type N patients tend to be employed, better educated, and more responsive to treatment than other types.
    • Type 0: A Pain Classification of "0" signifies that the profile did not match any of the typologies. This does not mean that chronic pain is not present. (Please note that if the L scale score is greater than 65T, the program will automatically drop through the P-A-I-N classification and the client will be classified as "0.")
  • Should I use the MMPI-2 instrument in light of the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) and the Civil Rights Act?

    Pearson cannot offer legal advice and we recommend that you seek the opinion of competent employment counsel to ensure that the most appropriate advice can be provided for your individual circumstances. However, the ADA's apparent impact on the use of the MMPI-2 instrument relates to the timing of the administration. The MMPI-2 instrument appears to be classified as a medical examination under the ADA, and hence must be administered subsequent to a conditional offer of employment being tendered by an employer. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 ("CRA"), appears to impact the use of the MMPI-2 instrument with respect to the use of norms. Under the CRA it is inappropriate to use either race or sex norms when utilizing tests in the employment domain.

  • Can I still use the administrations I have for the MMPI-2 Extended Score PLUS Report (product code 51439)?

    No, the MMPI-2 Extended Score PLUS Report (product code 51439) was discontinued and subsequently removed from the software. If you believe you have unused administrations for this report and would like to exchange them for the MMPI-2 Extended Score Report (product code 51438), you will need to return your report counter to Pearson Assessments. Call 800-627-7271 to arrange for a return and exchange. The Extended Score PLUS Report (51439) was discontinued because it contained information pertaining to the original MMPI test, which was discontinued by the University of Minnesota Press on September 1, 1999. Unused Extended Score PLUS Report (51439) usages will not carry over to your inventory. In addition, you will not be able to order any usages for this report. The Extended Score PLUS Report (51439) will not appear as a Print Report option. Test data from an MMPI-2 test scored as an Extended Score PLUS Report (51439) will transfer but will not have any report history. You can print an Extended Score Report (51438) from the converted data, but this will require a usage.

  • Where can I find information about the mean profiles that are provided in the Personnel System, 3rd Edition reports?

    Occupation-specific mean profiles were added to the Personnel Interpretive Report (product code 51442) and the Personnel Adjustment Rating Report (product code 51441) in 2001. The updated Revised Personnel System, 3rd Edition User’s Guide (2001) provides information on the occupation-specific mean profiles.

  • My VRIN and TRIN answer keys don't match-up with the answer sheets. Why not?

    Scales VRIN and TRIN are hand-scored differently from all other MMPI-2 scales. The four answer keys for these scales are designed to line-up with a special VRIN and TRIN recording grid, rather than with the answer sheet. The test-taker's responses to the 49 VRIN item pairs and the 20 TRIN item pairs must be transferred to the recording grid. The VRIN and TRIN answer keys are placed over the recording grid for scoring. Complete instructions for hand-scoring these scales are listed on the recording grid. A set of 50 VRIN and TRIN recording grids is packaged with every set of 50 Validity and Clinical Scales profile forms. If you are missing recording grids, please call us to request a replacement set of VRIN and TRIN recording grids at no charge.

    More Information on the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales

    For more information about the new MMPI-2 RC scales, including a list of frequently asked questions, click here.

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