Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form®
Age Range: 18 years and older
Reading Level: 5th grade (Lexile average), 4.5 grade (Flesch-Kincaid)
Administration: Online, computer, CD, or paper and pencil.
Length: 338 True-False items
Completion Time: 35-50 minutes
Norms: The MMPI-2-RF normative sample is drawn from the MMPI-2 normative sample and consists of 2,276 men and women between the ages 18 and 80 from several regions and diverse communities in the U.S. The MMPI-2-RF T scores are non-gendered and non-K-corrected. No new norms were collected for the MMPI-2-RF.
Scoring Options: Q-global™ Scoring & Reporting, Q-Local™ Software, Hand Scoring, or Mail-in Scoring Service
Report Options: Score, Interpretive and Police Candidate Interpretive
Publication Date: 2008
Publisher: University of Minnesota Press
Composed of 338 items, with the RC (Restructured Clinical) Scales at its core, the MMPI-2-RF builds on the strengths of the MMPI®-2 test to create a new standard. Psychometrically up-to-date, the MMPI-2-RF is linked to current models of psychopathology and personality. A comprehensive technical manual for the MMPI-2-RF reports empirical correlates of the scales in a range of settings, including mental health inpatient and outpatient clinics, substance abuse treatment centers, criminal court proceedings, personal injury and disability evaluations, and public safety employment evaluations.
The MMPI-2-RF provides a valuable alternative to the MMPI-2 test. The MMPI-2 test continues to be published and fully supported by the University of Minnesota Press and distributed exclusively by Pearson.
How to Use this Test
The MMPI-2-RF aids clinicians in the assessment of mental disorders, identification of specific problem areas, and treatment planning in a variety of settings. The test can be used to help:
- Assess major symptoms of psychopathology, personality characteristics, and behavioral proclivities.
- Evaluate participants in substance abuse programs and select appropriate treatment approaches.
- Assess medical patients and design effective treatment strategies, including chronic pain management.
- Support college and career counseling recommendations.
- Provide valuable insight for marriage and family counseling.
- Support classification, treatment, and management decisions in criminal justice and correctional settings.
- Give strong empirical foundation for expert testimony in forensic evaluations.
- Identify high-risk candidates in public safety screening and selection settings.
- Comprehensive technical manual that presents empirical data.The technical manual reports empirical correlates of the scales in a range of settings, including mental health inpatient and outpatient clinics, substance abuse treatment centers, criminal court proceedings, personal injury and disability evaluations, and public safety employment evaluations.
- Nationally representative normative sample. Drawn from the MMPI-2 normative sample, the MMPI-2-RF normative sample consists of 2,276 men and women between the ages of 18 and 80 from several regions and diverse communities in the U.S.
- Availability of comparison samples. Descriptive data from a broad range of settings make it possible for test users to compare individual test results with relevant reference groups in settings such as mental health, medical, forensic, criminal justice, and public safety.
- Only 35–50 minutes to administer.
Save even more time—administration by computer takes only 25–35 minutes.
The following comparison groups are available in the Score and Interpretive reports.
- MMPI-2-RF Normative
- Outpatient, Community Mental Health Center
- Outpatient, Independent Practice
- Psychiatric Inpatient, Community Hospital
- Psychiatric Inpatient, VA Hospital
- Substance Abuse Treatment, VA Hospital
- Bariatric Surgery Candidate
- College Counseling Clinic
- College Student
- Forensic, Child Custody Litigant
- Forensic, Disability Claimant
- Forensic, Parental Fitness Evaluee
- Forensic, Pre-trial Criminal
- Forensic, Neuropsychological Examination Litigant/Claimant
- Prison Inmate
- Personnel Screening, Law Enforcement Officer
- Personnel Screening, Corrections Officer
- Personnel Screening, Clergy
- Chronic Pain Evaluee
- Spine Surgery/Spinal Cord Stimulator Candidate
- Sex Offender Child Victim Evaluee
- Sexual Addiction Treatment Evaluee
- Personnel Screening, Firefighter
Software and Report Features
- Administer an audio version of the MMPI-2-RF on-screen
- Easily convert MMPI-2 records to MMPI-2-RF records for comparison
- Add comparative means and standard deviations for 18 different settings to your MMPI-2-RF Interpretive Report (product code #51563) or MMPI-2-RF Score Report (product code #51562)
- Add annotation, end notes, and hover text to your MMPI-2-RF Interpretive Report—see illustration below
Other recent enhancements
- Create customized comparison groups with the Comparison Group Generator
- Generate item-level responses for any of the 51 scales, choosing from a number of cut-off options
- Easily identify and evaluate scores by domain using a new one-page summary
- Obtain scores for the new Response Bias Scale (RBS)
- Print an MMPI-2-RF report from an MMPI-2 protocol with the touch of a button
- Access referenced research articles using hyperlinks in the MMPI-2-RF report reference list
- Import / export of custom comparison groups
? - Cannot Say (reported as a raw score only, not plotted)
VRIN-r - Variable Response Inconsistency
TRIN-r - True Response Inconsistency
F-r - Infrequent Responses
Fp-r - Infrequent Psychopathology Responses
Fs - Infrequent Somatic Responses
FBS-r - Symptom Validity
RBS - Response Bias Scale
L-r - Uncommon Virtues
K-r - Adjustment Validity
Higher-Order (H-O) and Restructured Clinical (RC)
EID - Emotional/Internalizing Dysfunction
THD - Thought Dysfunction
BXD - Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction
RC (Restructured Clinical)
RCd - Demoralization
RC1 - Somatic Complaints
RC2 - Low Positive Emotions
RC3 - Cynicism
RC4 - Antisocial Behavior
RC6 - Ideas of Persecution
RC7 - Dysfunctional Negative Emotions
RC8 - Aberrant Experiences
RC9 - Hypomanic Activation
Somatic/Cognitive and Internalizing
MLS - Malaise
GIC - Gastrointestinal Complaints
HPC - Head Pain Complaints
NUC - Neurological Complaints
COG - Cognitive Complaints
SUI - Suicidal/Death Ideation
HLP - Helplessness/Hopelessness
SFD - Self-Doubt
NFC - Inefficacy
STW - Stress/Worry
AXY - Anxiety
ANP - Anger Proneness
BRF - Behavior-Restricting Fears
MSF - Multiple Specific Fears
Externalizing, Interpersonal, and Interest
JCP - Juvenile Conduct Problems
SUB - Substance Abuse
AGG - Aggression
ACT - Activation
FML - Family Problems
IPP - Interpersonal Passivity
SAV - Social Avoidance
SHY - Shyness
DSF - Disaffiliativeness
AES - Aesthetic-Literary Interests
MEC - Mechanical-Physical Interests
Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales
AGGR-r - Aggressiveness-Revised
PSYC-r - Psychoticism-Revised
DISC-r - Disconstraint-Revised
NEGE-r - Negative Emotionality/Neuroticism-Revised
INTR-r - Introversion/Low Positive Emotionality-Revised
The MMPI-2-RF normative sample is drawn from the MMPI-2 normative sample. It consists of 2,276 men and women between the ages of 18 and 80 from several regions and diverse communities in the U.S. The MMPI-2-RF T scores are non-gendered and non-K-corrected.
The MMPI-2-RF® Score and Interpretive Reports provide raw and T scores for all 51 empirically validated scales of the MMPI-2-RF. These reports also enable users to include comparative means and standard deviations for 20 different comparison groups and to create their own customized comparison groups.
This report provides scores for all 51 scales of the test in the following profiles:
- Validity scales
- Higher-Order and Restructured Clinical (RC) scales
- Somatic/Cognitive and Internalizing scales
- Externalizing, Interpersonal, and Interest scales
- PSY-5 scales
This report includes full scoring information (see Score Report) and an integrated interpretation of scores organized in the following sections:
- Synopsis – Summary of the major conclusions
- Protocol Validity – Comprehensive information about potential threats to test validity
- Substantive Scale Interpretation – Description of clinical symptoms, personality characteristics, and behavioral tendencies
- Diagnostic Considerations – Diagnostic possibilities indicated by test results
- Treatment Considerations – Recommendations pertaining to treatment planning
- Item–Level Information – List of unscorable responses, critical responses, and user-designated item-level information
- Endnotes – Identification of scores that triggered each interpretive statement
- Research Reference List – Sources of interpretive statements based on empirical correlates
Police Candidate Interpretive Report
Authors: David M. Corey & Yossef S. Ben-Porath
The new MMPI-2-RF Police Candidate Interpretive Report (PCIR), developed based on the most current police officer outcome research, is designed to assist psychologists in confidently evaluating police officer candidates accurately and efficiently. The PCIR provides comprehensive scoring information (see Score Report) with an integrated interpretation of scores based on a comparison group of more than 2000 police candidates assessed throughout North America. The integrated interpretation of scores is organized in the following sections.
- Synopsis – Summary of major conclusions
- Protocol Validity – Comprehensive information about test validity with guidance on implications of overly positive self-presentation
- Clinical Findings – Description of clinical-level symptoms, personality characteristics, and behavioral tendencies
- Diagnostic Considerations – Diagnostic possibilities indicated by test results
- Comparison Group Findings – Substantive scale findings in the context of the police officer candidate comparison group
- Job-Relevant Correlates – Potential problems in 10 job domains identified as relevant to police candidate suitability
- Item–Level Information – List of unscorable responses, critical responses, user-designated item-level information, and critical follow-up items for police candidate evaluations
- End Notes – Identification of scores that triggered each interpretive statement
- Research Reference List – Sources of interpretive statements based on empirical correlates
Scoring and Reporting Options
Q-global™ Web-based Administration, Scoring, and Reporting - Enables you to quickly assess and efficiently organize examinee information, generate scores, and produce accurate comprehensive reports all via the Web.
Q Local™ Scoring and Reporting Desktop Software - Enables you to score assessments, report results, and store and export data on your computer.
Mail-in Scoring Service - Specially designed answer sheets are mailed to Pearson and are processed within 24–48 hours of receipt; results returned via regular mail.
Manual Scoring – Administer assessments on answer sheets and score them yourself with answer keys and profile/record forms.
Spotlight on the MMPI-2-RF - Yossef S. Ben-Porath, PhD
Discover more about the development, composition, and use of the MMPI-2-RF in this video series presented by co-author
Request: Trial Packet - New link coming soon!
MMPI-2-RF Online Independent Study
Four lectures, presented by coauthor Yossef S. BenPorath, cover an introduction to the MMPI2RF, its features, the 51 scales, and interpretation guidance.
Earn up to 4 APA CE Credits (for a nominal fee). Information to obtain CE is included with the Online Independent Study lectures.
- Introduction and overview of the MMPI-2-RF
- Documentation and Features of the MMPI-2-RF
- Scales of the MMPI-2-RF
- MMPI-2-RF Interpretation with Case Examples
Getting Started with the Q-global Training Series
View these brief training modules about Q-global:
- Introduction and overview of the MMPI-2-RF
Frequently asked questions follow. Click on a question to see the response.
Invalid Report and Demographic Defaults
What are the demographic default values and scorability rules for an MMPI-2-RF administration?
Test Date, Birth Date, ID Number, and Gender must be filled in. The software will not print any report without this information. Age is calculated from the Test Date and Birth Date. If the client is younger than 18, no report will be printed. There are no default values for Years of Education, Marital Status, or Ethnic Origin if these demographic data are missing because they are not required and have no impact on the scoring of the MMPI-2-RF assessment.
My MMPI-2-RF Score Report is invalid, but it doesn't say that on the report. Why not?
The Score Report provides profiles and scores for the MMPI-2-RF scales, but does not provide an interpretation. Traditional invalidity rules are not applicable to the Score Report. When using this report, interpretation is the responsibility of the clinician. The clinician is responsible for addressing scale invalidity in his or her interpretation.
How does the MMPI-2-RF Interpretive Report deal with invalid protocols?
Protocols that are invalid and uninterpretable due to elevated VRIN-r and TRIN-r scores include unscorable responses, but no critical responses for any scales. Protocols that are invalid and uninterpretable due to elevated F-r and Fp-r scores, and % scorable < 70 on any of the validity scales include unscorable responses and critical responses for the following seven scales (only if these scales are also elevated): SUI, HLP, AXY, RC6, RC8, SUB, and AGG. Invalid reports are clearly marked with an invalidity message on each profile and no interpretation is provided.
My MMPI-2 report was scorable and valid, but my MMPI-2-RF report was not scorable and valid. Which test and report should I rely upon?
The MMPI-2-RF Validity Scales are similar but not identical to the MMPI-2 Validity Scales. The former are less redundant (e.g., there is no item overlap on the VRIN-r and TRIN-r scales) and more up-to-date (e.g., unlike F, F-r includes only items rarely endorsed by the MMPI-2 normative sample). Because all of the MMPI-2-RF items are embedded in the MMPI-2, if the MMPI-2-RF report indicates that the protocol is invalid, then the MMPI-2 results are likely invalid as well and should not be interpreted. In an opposite case, if an MMPI-2 protocol is invalid and the MMPI-2-RF report indicates that the protocol is valid, the MMPI-2-RF results can be interpreted with caution.
Norms and Scales
Does the MMPI-2-RF have different norms than the MMPI-2?
The MMPI-2-RF normative sample is drawn from the MMPI-2 normative sample and consists of 2,276 men and women, 1,138 of each gender, between the ages of 18 and 80 from several regions and diverse communities in the U.S. The MMPI-2-RF T scores are non-gendered and non-K-corrected. No new norms were collected for the MMPI-2-RF.
Are there norms for different cultures for the MMPI-2-RF test?
American minorities are included in the normative sample. There are no separate cultural norms.
What is the FBS-r (Symptom Validity) Scale?
The FBS-r (Symptom Validity) Scale provides information regarding non-credible symptom reporting and has been found particularly useful in neuropsychological assessments. For more information about the FBS-r, visit: here
Are the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in the MMPI-2-RF the same as the RC Scales in the MMPI-2?
Yes, they are identical. For more information about the RC Scales, visit: here
Are the MMPI-2-RF T scores K-corrected?
No. Recently published research indicates that the K correction does not enhance validity and in some cases validity is actually attenuated by the K correction. Non-K-corrected T scores allow interpreters to examine the relative contributions of the Clinical Scale raw score and the K correction to K-corrected Clinical Scale T scores. This information may be particularly helpful when the K score deviates substantially from the average T-score range (<39 or >65).
Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales
What kind of documentation is available for the RC Scales?
A test monograph by Tellegen, Ben-Porath, McNulty, Arbisi, Graham, & Kaemmer (2003), titled The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: Development, Validation, and Interpretation, includes: an introduction providing the rationale for creating the RC Scales, information about how the scales were developed, detailed psychometric information on the reliability and validity of the RC Scales, recommendations for interpreting the RC Scales, case examples illustrating RC Scale interpretation, and a discussion of future directions in RC Scale research and application. This document also includes detailed appendixes specifying the item composition of the scales and raw-to-uniform T-score conversion tables. See also the MMPI-2-RF Manual for Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation for an extensive discussion of the scales. Numerous publications on the RC Scales have appeared in the journal and book literature, including the text by Yossef S. Ben-Porath, Interpreting the MMPI-2-RF (2012), available from the University of Minnesota Press.
What is the research base for the RC Scales?
The development and validation of the scales is documented in the first chapter of a test monograph by Tellegen, Ben-Porath, McNulty, Arbisi, Graham, & Kaemmer (2003), titled The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: Development, Validation, and Interpretation, available from Pearson. Numerous publications on the RC Scales have appeared in the journal and book literature, including the text by Yossef S. Ben-Porath, Interpreting the MMPI-2-RF (2012), available from the University of Minnesota Press.
How were the RC Scales developed?
The development of the scales is documented in the first chapter of a test monograph by Tellegen, Ben-Porath, McNulty, Arbisi, Graham, & Kaemmer (2003), titled The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: Development, Validation, and Interpretation, available from Pearson, and in the text by Yossef S. Ben-Porath, Interpreting the MMPI-2-RF (2012), available from the University of Minnesota Press.
The author of the scales, Auke Tellegen, first isolated the general distress or “demoralization” component of the existing Clinical Scales. He then identified major distinctive and maximally demoralization-free components of the ten scales and constructed a set of new scales measuring these components for eight of the scales (not for Scales 5 and 0).
Do the RC Scales overlap?
No, they do not. It was the intent of the scales’ developer, Auke Tellegen, to construct scales that would each measure a major distinctive dimension currently embedded in the Clinical scales.
Why don't scales 5 and 0 have corresponding RC Scales?
The RC Scales were designed to assess psychopathology. Scale 5 does not assess a currently recognized clinical disorder, and Scale 0 measures a normal–range personality trait. The MMPI-2-RF, anchored by the RC Scales, includes scales that assess constructs associated with Clinical Scales 5 and 0.
What are the intercorrelations of the RC Scales, and, in comparison, of the Clinical Scales?
Intercorrelations of both sets of scales on several samples are reported in Tables 4-6 through 4-12 of a test monograph by Tellegen, Ben-Porath, McNulty, Arbisi, Graham, & Kaemmer (2003), titled The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: Development, Validation, and Interpretation, available from Pearson. As expected, the RC Scales are considerably less strongly intercorrelated (considerably more distinctive) than are the Clinical Scales.
What are the test-retest reliabilities of the RC Scales?
This information is provided in Tables 4-4 and 4-5 of a test monograph by Tellegen, Ben-Porath, McNulty, Arbisi, Graham, & Kaemmer (2003), titled The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: Development, Validation, and Interpretation. See also the MMPI-2-RF Technical Manual.
What are the internal consistencies of the RC Scales?
This information is provided in Tables 4-4 and 4-5 of a Test Monograph by Tellegen, Ben-Porath, McNulty, Arbisi, Graham. & Kaemmer (2003), titled The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: Development, Validation, and Interpretation. See also the MMPI-2-RF Technical Manual.
Do I use the traditional cut-offs to evaluate elevations on the RC Scales?
Yes, with the same precautions one should observe for employing any recommended cut-offs, namely that they be considered guidelines identifying points at which the interpretive focus should shift, rather than as fixed points demarcating qualitative change.
Are the RC Scales K-corrected? Why not?
The RC Scales are not K-corrected. Research indicates that the K correction either does not affect the validity of the Clinical Scales (in clinical settings) or significantly attenuates the validity of the scales. A K correction is therefore not applied to the RC Scales.
Are the Clinical Scales less valid than the RC Scales?
Research has established that in comparison with the Clinical Scales, the RC Scales have comparable to improved convergent validity and substantially improved discriminant validity.
What is the Demoralization Scale?
The Demoralization Scale provides an appraisal of the test-taker’s current overall sense of well-being. As such, it can serve as the starting point for the RC Scale interpretation process. It was constructed by extracting to the extent possible from the Clinical Scales the general distress component present in all the Clinical Scales as well as in most other MMPI-2 scales.
Are the RC Scales useful with non-clinical populations that typically produce within-normal-limits profiles, like personnel/employee testing and child custody evaluations?
The RC Scales can also be effective with non-clinical populations. Corey and Ben-Porath review studies that support and guide use of the RC Scales in pre-employment assessments of police officer candidates (see MMPI-2-RF Police Candidate Interpretive Report User’s Guide). This body of research indicates a need to use lower (than the traditional T score 65) cut-offs in assessments of risk for negative outcomes in police candidates. Table 4-6 includes recommended cut-offs for the RC Scales.
How do the Clinical Scales and the RC Scales differ in how they assess psychopathology?
Multiple elevations on the Clinical Scales may reflect comorbidity and/or demoralization, making it difficult to accurately determine the presence of actually comorbid and complex syndromes. The relatively low demoralization saturation of the RC Scales and their improved discriminant properties enable users to more accurately identify the necessary elements of a syndrome and the occurrence of comorbidity.
Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation Help and other Information
What is the RBS Scale?
The Response Bias Scale (RBS) is an over-reporting indicator associated with exaggerated or non-credible memory complaints. References to RBS studies can be found here.
Can I create my own comparison group?
Yes. Users can create user-customized comparison groups based on data within their Q Local database. See chapter 5 of the MMPI-2-RF User's Guide for Reports (2011) for detailed instructions.
Why didn't I receive all of the references in the End Notes section of my MMPI-2-RF Interpretive Report: Clinical Settings?
References are printed only for studies relied upon in generating correlate-based interpretive statements in a specific report. This enhancement was introduced in version 2.3 of Q Local software. An up-to-date list of all MMPI-2-RF references can be found at: here.
Can the MMPI-2-RF Interpretive Report serve as a complete and independent psychological report on a client?
No. As noted on each report, the statements contained in the narrative represent a professional-to-professional consultation and do not serve as an independent or "stand-alone" report. The following notice appears in the MMPI-2-RF reports: “The interpretive report is intended for use by a professional qualified to interpret the MMPI-2-RF. The information it contains should be considered in the context of the test-taker’s background, the circumstances of the assessment, and other available information.”
Can I exchange unused MMPI-2 report usages for MMPI-2-RF usages?
Please call us at 1-800-627-7271 to discuss the exchange of MMPI-2 report usages for MMPI-2-RF usages
Can I print an MMPI-2 report and an MMPI-2-RF report for the same test-taker?
Yes, the Score and Print Report menu for an MMPI-2 administration includes an option to generate an MMPI-2-RF report (available with Q Local software versions 2.7 and higher). An MMPI-2-RF usage will be required to generate the MMPI-2-RF report for the test-taker's administration. See chapter 5 of the MMPI-2-RF User's Guide for Reports (2011) for detailed instructions.
Can I administer an “abbreviated” MMPI-2 test (first 370 items only) and get an MMPI-2-RF report?
No. The MMPI-2-RF is composed of items throughout the entire MMPI-2 test booklet.
Where can I find further information about the MMPI-2-RF Interpretive Report?
The MMPI-2-RF User's Guide for Reports is available from NCS Pearson, Inc.
Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Tellegen, A. (2008). MMPI-2-RF User's Guide for Reports. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Where can I find information about the content validity, construct validity, and criterion validity of the MMPI-2-RF instrument?
The manuals for the MMPI-2-RF are available from NCS Pearson, Inc.
Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Tellegen, A. (2008). MMPI-2-RF Manual for Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Tellegen, A., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2008). MMPI-2-RF Technical Manual. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Are there tables in the MMPI-2-RF manuals converting MMPI-2 item ordering to MMPI-2-RF item ordering and vice versa?
Yes, in Appendix E of the MMPI-2-RF Manual for Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation (2008).
Are all MMPI-2-RF scales copyrighted?
Should I use the MMPI-2-RF instrument in light of the recent ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) and the Civil Rights Act?
Pearson cannot offer legal advice; we recommend that you seek the opinion of competent employment counsel to ensure that you obtain the most appropriate advice for your individual circumstances. The apparent impact of the ADA on the use of the MMPI-2-RF instrument relates to the timing of the administration. Because the MMPI-2-RF instrument appears to be classified as a medical examination under the ADA, it must be administered subsequent to a conditional offer of employment being tendered by an employer. Under the Civil Rights Act of 1991 ("CRA") it is inappropriate to use tests with either race or sex norms in the employment domain. The MMPI-2-RF norms are not based on race or sex.