K-SNAP Technical Information
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K-SNAP Technical Information

Publication Data

Instrument name/abbreviation Kaufman Short Neuropsychological Assessment Procedure (K-SNAP)
Author(s) Alan S. Kaufman and Nadeen L. Kaufman
Publisher/address Pearson Assessments, Bloomington, MN
Copyright date 1994

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Product Description

Brief description Individual assessment of an adolescent's or adult's cognitive functioning at three levels of complexity.
Primary use/purpose Can be used as a short cognitive evaluation, or as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological or intellectual assessment, in such places as clinics, hospitals, schools, private practices, and nursing facilities. Can help determine whether comprehensive testing is necessary.
Age range covered Ages 11 to over 85 years
Administration time 20 to 30 minutes
Individual vs. group Individual
User qualifications Test can be given by a range of personnel, but must be interpreted by a professional with knowledge and training in psychometrics and individual assessment.

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Subtest names Mental Status, Gestalt Closure, Number Recall, and Four- Letter Words
Composite names Recall/Closure Composite, K-SNAP Composite
Forms One
Materials included in the kit Manual, an easel, and 25 Record Booklets

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Item Information

Item types Most tasks are administered in easel format. Part of one subtest is paper and pencil.
Response format Mental Status—stimuli are auditory and/or visual, response is verbal; Gestalt Closure—stimuli are visual, response is verbal; Number Recall—stimuli are auditory, response is verbal; Four-Letter Words—stimuli are visual, response is verbal or motor.
Item scoring Objective, 1-0 (correct or incorrect)

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Scoring Information

Scoring options must be hand scored
Derived scores available-Subtests scaled scores (M = 10, SD = 3), percentile ranks, and descriptive categories. Mental Status has only descriptive categories
Derived scores available-Composites Recall/Closure Composite offers same scores as subtests. K-SNAP Composite has standard scores, percentile ranks, and descriptive categories.
Impairment Index Impairment Index score can be calculated using four diagnostic criteria, chosen based on clinical and neuropsychological theory.
Norm groups available Age-based
Interpretive features can be interpreted in the context of several intellectual and neuropsychological assessment theories -- Luria's PASS model, Piaget's stages of thought, psycholinguistic theories, or process models. Measures functioning at three distinct levels of complexity. Impairment Index provides an objective look at a person's level of impairment (specific criteria were selected to correspond to specific clinical and neurological disorders).
Computerized scoring No

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Technical Information—Standardization

Date April 1988 to October 1991
Size 2,000 (same sample exactly as the KAIT) Based on U.S. census data in the year 1990

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controlled for:   Females Males
Age/Gender Yes Yes
Race Yes Yes
Geographic region Yes Yes
SES/parent education Yes Yes
Community size No No
Special populations included No No

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Internal consistency Gestalt Closure = .82
Number Recall = .83
Four-Letter Words = .84
Recall/Closure Composite = .85
K-SNAP Composite = .89
Test - Retest Gestalt Closure = .78
Number Recall = .78
Four-Letter Words = .65
Recall/Closure Composite = .83
K-SNAP Composite = .82
Impairment Index = .68
Interrater No

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Intercorrelations Yes
Content Yes
Construct Yes
Concurrent Yes
Predictive Yes (diagnostic)
Factor analysis Yes, joint with K-FAST, KAIT, and WAIS-R
Clinical sample Yes, neurologically impaired, Alzheimer's, MR, reading disabled, clinically depressed
Other instruments used in correlation studies WISC-R, WAIS-R, SB-IV, K-ABC, KAIT, K-FAST, K-BIT, PPVT-R, K-TEA

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Developmental history Developed with the KAIT, K-BIT, and K-FAST
Special features Covers wide age range and wide range of ability levels; provides a well-normed measure of mental status.
Adaptation of special needs Allows teaching to ensure all examinees understand the nature of the task. Includes various input/output formats to minimize unfairness to people with lateralized brain damage. People with reading disabilities should not be given Four-Letter Words.
Sensitivity to other cultures All items were analyzed for bias.

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